Robert Mangold was born in North Tonawanda, NY in 1937. In 1956, he enrolled in the illustration department of the Cleveland Institute of Art. Within a year, he had transferred to the fine-arts division of the school in order to pursue an education in painting, sculpture, and drawing. While studying at the institute in 1957, Mangold traveled to see the Carnegie International in Pittsburgh, where he gained exposure to the work of a wide variety of Abstract Expressionist painters, including Willem de Kooning, Adolph Gottlieb, Franz Kline, and Jackson Pollock. After graduating in 1959, he was awarded a fellowship to attend the Yale Summer School of Music and Art in Norfolk, Connecticut. In the fall of 1960, Mangold entered the graduate program at the Yale University School of Art and Architecture receiving a MFA in 1962. By 1964, Mangold had moved into his signature Minimalist painting style. His first solo exhibition, entitled Walls and Areas, was held at the Fischbach Gallery in 1965. From 1965 to 1966, the Jewish Museum (New York) mounted the first major exhibition of Minimalist painting, which included Mangold’s work. Mangold became an instructor in the fine-arts department of the School of Visual Arts (New York) in the mid-1960s. Major museum exhibitions of his work have been held at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York (1971), the Museum of Contemporary Art in San Diego (1974), the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam (1982), Hallen für Neue Kunst in Schaffhausen (1993), and Musée D’Orsay in Paris (2006).